EPA developed the hazardous waste recycling regulations to promote the reuse and reclamation of useful materials in a manner that is safe and protective of human health and the environment. A hazardous waste is recycled if it is used, reused, or reclaimed.
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What is Hazardous Waste Recycling?
A hazardous secondary material is recycled if it is used or reused (e.g., as an ingredient in a process), reclaimed, or used in certain ways including used in a manner constituting disposal and burned for energy recovery.
A material is reclaimed if it is processed to recover a usable product or if it is regenerated (e.g., regeneration of spent solvents).
A material is used or reused if it is either employed as an ingredient in an industrial process to make a product (e.g., distillation bottoms from one process used as feedstock in another process) or if it is employed as an effective substitute for a commercial product (e.g., spent pickle liquor used as a sludge conditioner in wastewater treatment).
"Use constituting disposal" is recycling that involves the direct placement of wastes or products containing wastes (e.g., asphalt with petroleum-refining wastes as an ingredient) on the land. "Burning for energy recovery" is recycling that involves burning a hazardous waste for its fuel value (either directly or when it is used to produce a fuel).
What are the Benefits of Recycling Hazardous Waste?
Hazardous waste reuse, recycling, and reclamation can avoid environmental hazards, protect scarce natural resources, reduce the nation's reliance on raw materials and energy and provide economic benefits.
There are several, interrelated environmental benefits of recycling hazardous waste including:
- reducing the consumption of raw materials,
- reducing pollution,
- reducing energy use and
- reducing the volume of waste that must be treated and disposed of.
The extraction, refining, transportation and processing of new raw materials can have a significant impact on the environment. Recycling hazardous waste can mean less air, water, and soil pollution associated with these practices.
Also, recycling can reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). When hazardous wastes are recycled, less energy is needed to obtain raw materials and to manufacture products. When energy demand decreases, fewer fossil fuels are burned and less GHGs are emitted into the atmosphere, which can help lessen the impacts of climate change and decrease air pollution.
Finally, by recycling hazardous wastes, less hazardous waste is sent for treatment and disposal. This means less need for hazardous waste landfills and incinerators, as well as a decrease in energy used for those systems, which leads to less pollution.
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